Notice the difference between shortterm and longterm is an industry. The main difference between pp and cp on one side and ppk and cpk on the other side is whether we use complete set of data for calculation pp and ppk where we calculate real performance of the system, or we use sample preproduction, batch, logical subgroups where we calculate capability of the process. Calculate cpk data collection tools quality advisor. Process capability study i process capability cp and cpk i cp cpk and pp ppk duration.
Free desktop six sigma, dpmoppm, yield, cpk calculator and converter. More than 90% of fortune 100 companies use minitab statistical software, our flagship product, and more students worldwide have. Six sigma spc oem products six sigma and spc statistical process control software applications six sigma spc 2070 w. The equations for cpk and ppk are shown in table 1. There is some confusion about the difference between cp and pk along with cpk and ppk. Jan 1, 2019 using the most common short term capability index. The addition of k quantifies the amount of which a distribution. It measures the performance of the process related to both dispersion and centeredness. Yes, we have been producing these monthly publications for a long time. The cpk and ppk measures will be very close when the process remains in a state of consistent statistical control, as both the actual sigma and estimated sigma will be similar.
An interactive look at process capability spc for excel software. The x with double bar over it is the overall average. There are some acronyms used to indicate both process capability and process performance. Process performance index ppk, cpk, pp what is six sigma. That will help you look like a data analysis, charting and statistics wizard. Cpk calculator is a free online tool that displays the process performance for the specified range. Process capability cp, cpk and process performance pp. You know, things like cpk, ppk, sigma level, ppm out of spec and so on. Ppk is the 6 sigma range of a processs total variation where sigma is estimated by the samples standard deviation. Cpk takes into account the center of the data relative to the specifications, as well as the variation in the process.
However, you may have noticed that lean six sigma is not as adept at helping solve people problems. As a pq systems technical support analyst, i too wondered what index would be best suited for her application, a highly specialized one. Use spc software to minimize production costs, optimize product quality, and. Also shown is a direct conversion to a cpk level based on the area under a normal curve. Oct 05, 2005 besides the fact that cpk and ppk are worse than useless and an abomination on the face of the earth imho, the original definitions and the ones most reputable statistical software use are this. As a technical support analyst, i too wondered what index would be best suited for her application.
Cpk will never exceed the cp similar to ppk, the cpk capability index is only a function of the standard deviation and mean of the data, not a nominal target value that may be historical or provided by the customer. Software today makes it easy to plug the data in and generate the results. Ppk ppl ppu pp cpm cpk cpl cpu cp std ev overall std ev w ithin sample n mean lsl target usl 0. Once statistical control is established, then the histogram and process capability may be analyzed properly. Should the first project a black belt works on the one that the black belt does for training be one of. There are additional features which are really helpful but the basic steps on computing cp, cpk, pp, and ppk are basically shared by versions jmp 5, jmp 6, jmp 7, and jmp 8. There is a time and a place to use each of these numbers depending on the individual situation. If the process is in control and the distribution is well within the specification limits then the difference between the upper.
Process capability analysis and process analytical technology. Ppk informs the user of how the process has performed in the past. But the statistical measurements of cp, cpk, pp, and ppk may provide more insight. The two metrics starting with c measure short term capability. By convention established at motorola, where the six sigma program originated, the sigma level is adjusted by 1. For more information on these and on pp and ppk, please see our. Lori, a software customer, phoned to ask if cpk is the best statistic to use in a process that slits metal to exacting widths. Total variability is used in the denominator instead of the short term. Spc software for excel six sigma software qi macros. It helps us understand what our process capability is and tells us the probability that the process will produce defects. More than 90% of fortune 100 companies use minitab statistical software, our flagship product, and more students worldwide have used minitab to learn statistics than any other package. The dmaic toolkit is excellent for solving technical complexity problems.
Software testing the tao of friday mit school of business undergraduate ctq linkage, critical to quality linkage. Cpk vs ppk cp cpk versus pp ppk compare to sigma qi macros. They must have excellent process knowledge and need to apply to appropriate tools. Lori, one of our customers, phoned to ask if cpk is the best statistic to use in a process that slits metal to exacting widths.
In addition, the workbook shows how cp, cpk, the sigma level, and the ppm out of. It is a data driven program that is focused on financial return. Because cp and cpk use estimated sigma, and pp and ppk use actual sigma, they have different uses. Process capability cp, cpk and process performance pp, ppk. Fro simplicity you could create a small table where in cpk0. In these cases, cp is ignored and only cpk can be used. This often happens with a mature process that has been around for a while. Perform ppk analysis for each parameter weight, hardness, thickness and shoot for a number of 1. In this article you will learn how to calculate machine and process capability using excel. Statistical software minitab quality companion process improved soft tools. Process performance index, is a statistical tool to verify if the sample that have generated from the process is capable to meet the customer requirement. There are 4 main metrics used to define capability. Capability analysis cp, cpk, pp, ppk part 4 how to.
Jan 26, 2018 this video explains the concept of process capability in detail and change in the values of cp and cpk when the process shifts within or beyond the limits of the specifications. Besides the fact that cpk and ppk are worse than useless and an abomination on the face of the earth imho, the original definitions and the ones most reputable statistical software use are this. Since cpk uses specification limits and parts variation sigma, we can also arrive at. Well have it back up and running as soon as possible. If the result of this transformation is a normally distributed dataset the pp, ppk and % out of tolerance can be used. Examples of process capability and process performance analysis qtrendcontrol demo application. This goal can be expressed in terms of process sigma level or in terms of cpkppk. Process capability analysis of varying cp and cpk value. It allows me to customize demostrations for my trainees that visually aid them in.
Spc software statistical process control infinityqs. Cpk statistical process control, lean six sigma, cpk. Like the cp index, the cpk shows the relationship of the 6sigma spread to the. Minitab is the leading provider of software and services for quality improvement and statistics education. Sep 11, 2009 i received a note asking how to do a capability analysis in jmp 8.
The difference is in how you calculate the actual sigma, or standard deviation, either using an estimate, or the actual calculations. The solution is an integrated dmiacchange management roadmap. In six sigma we want to describe processes quality in terms of sigma. Using minitab software, arrange above as data structure as shown on minitab worksheet below. Mar 19, 2009 as mentioned by sj, the cpk is a short term capability and ppk is the long erm capability. A target value from historical performance or the customer. Ppk ppk is an process capability index that assesses how close the process mean is from the specification limit. Learn the difference between cp cpk process capability and pp ppk process. Cpk informs the user about the future capability of a process. The process capability cpk, ppk and the machine capability cmk describe the ability to achieve a desired result.
This video explains the concept of process capability in detail and change in the values of cp and cpk when the process shifts within or beyond the limits of the specifications. Fixing values for minimum acceptable process capability targets is a matter of personal opinion, and what consensus exists varies by industry, facility, and the process under consideration. The capability study is one of the main tools of six sigma. Typically, it is considered that cpk and ppk should be greater than 1.
Process capability uses the process sigma value determined from either the moving range, range or sigma control charts. Six sigma process performance is reported in terms of sigma. Qi macros is an affordable, intuitive, timesaving addin for excel. Since a process capability is null and void unless the process is stable and in control, always look at the control charts, x bar and r bar, first. But the statistical measurements of cp, cpk, pp, and ppk may provide more insight into the process. In the six sigma quality methodology, process performance is reported to the.
Six sigma conversion table lean six sigma training and. That spread being centered around the midpoint is part of the cpk and ppk calculations. From the cpk value, one can derive that machine 1 is better than 2. Those acronyms are sometimes written with some of the letters in superscript to better explain the process. According to six sigma philosophy, cp or pp and cpk or ppk should be greater than 1. March 2014 this months publication takes a look at process capability a topic we first covered almost 10 years ago. As mentioned by sj, the cpk is a short term capability and ppk is the long erm capability. Cpk is a short term process index that numerically describes the within subgroup or potential capability ppk is long term indicator of a process assuming it was analyzed and stays in control. Six sigma conversion table lean six sigma training and software. From a technical standpoint, six sigma deems a process being acceptable only after achieving a maximum defect rate of 3. It doesnt care if the process is centered within the limits only if it would fit if it was centered. Successful six sigma practitioners must have strong communication and quantitative skills. A target value from historical performance or the customer can be used to estimate the cpm.
Six sigma can bring significant benefits to any business, but reaping those benefits requires the collection and analysis of data so you can understand opportunities for improvement and make significant and sustainable. In simple words, ppk is an index of process performance, which tells how well. You will also find out whether your values meet the requirements for calculating machine. Its an option along with zscore and ppm when describing process baseline measurement in the measure phase or in the control phase. We have developed an interactive excel workbook that lets you visually see how changing the average and standard deviation of your process impacts your process capability. Ppk is used as a snapshot of the process variation at any given point in time.
See the 30minute pizza delivery example in delight your customers the six sigma way. When it comes to data collection software and statistical analysis, you may feel like you are. Then, go to statquality toolscapability analysisnormal to run the analysis. Both cpk and ppk are the minimum of two process indices. Ppk is useful to determine if a process will be capable cpk if process conditions maintain stability. I received a note asking how to do a capability analysis in jmp 8. So, even with a large shift in the average, the 6 sigma level process still is. It measures how well the data might fit between the spec limits usl, lsl. Cpk the ratio of the process spread to the tolerance using the within subgroup standard deviation. In other words, if cpk ppk, the process is likely in statistical control. Spc, ppk, pp, cpk, and cp are some of the major abbreviations to know.
Frequently cited capability metrics include cpk, ppk, defects per million opportunities dpmo, and sigma level. Cp and cpk can be used to measure a systems potential capabilities, while pp and ppk measure the systems actual performance. The capability indices of ppk and cpk use the mean and standard deviation to estimate probability. Calculations and comparisons to other capability indexes.
This is a script i developed to help me in explaining the concepts of cppp and cpkppk whenever i am conducting six sigma trainings. Actually nothing much have changed in how to do it. Cp, cpk distribution cpk is centering of the process cpkinterpretation. Cpk is a standard index to state the capability of one process, the higher the cpk value the better the process is. Learn the definitions, interpretations and calculations for cp, cpk, pp and ppk. This goal can be expressed in terms of process sigma level or in terms of cpk ppk. Generally you use this when a process is under statistical control. The most commonly used measures of capability are cp, cpk, pp, and ppk. Byjus online cpk calculator tool makes the calculation faster, and it calculates the performance of the process in a fraction of seconds.567 248 875 1064 197 1425 406 1145 972 1457 819 23 1474 164 628 467 1089 639 1072 841 69 530 412 1128 481 1263 1522 903 1529 78 310 871 59 981 1470 708 713 450 115 552